Glossary

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Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinals, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

Agricultural biotechnology is the term used in crop and livestock improvement through biotechnology tools (ISAAA, 2015).

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Biotechnology is a set of tools that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify a product, improve plants, trees or animals, or develop microorganisms for specific uses (ISAAA, 2015).

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Economic and physical access to food maintains that the adequate supply of food at the national or international level does not in itself guarantee household level food security (FAO, 2008).

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Food availability is defined as sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports, including food aid (Scialabba, 2011).

Food reserves are food stocks held or controlled by governments on a continuous basis and subject to replenishment within reasonable periods (FAO).

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (FAO World Food Summit, 1996).

Food security robustness is a country’s ability to withstand any perturbations to its food security system by having a balanced capacity to make food available; ensure that production is sustainable; and provide the necessary infrastructure and policies to support domestic production, promote trade and manage food demand and affordability (Teng and Morales, 2013).

Food safety is about handling, storing and preparing food to prevent infection and help to make sure that our food keeps enough nutrients for us to have a healthy diet (FAO, 2004)

Food self-reliance advocates reliance on the international market for the availability of food in the domestic market; implies maintaining some level of domestic food production plus generating the capacity to import from the world market as needed. International trade is an essential component (Konandreas, 2006).

Food self-sufficiency is meeting food needs, as far as possible, from domestic supplies and minimizing dependence on international trade. It advocates diets that are simple and natural that can be produced domestically (Konandreas, 2006).

Food utilization is the way the body makes the most of various nutrients in the food, and sufficient energy and nutrient intake by individuals is the result of good care and feeding practices, food preparation, diversity of the diet and intra-household distribution of food (FAO, 2008).

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Stockpiled reserves are aimed at providing humanitarian food relief for localized emergencies; this more closely corresponds to the emergency reserves being recommended to counter food crises (FAO et al. , 2011 in APTERR).

Stability maintains that even if your food intake is adequate today, you are still considered to be food insecure if you have inadequate access to food on a periodic basis, risking a deterioration of your nutritional status. Adverse weather conditions, political instability, or economic factors (unemployment, rising food prices) may have an impact on your food security status (FAO, 2008).

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Urban and peri-urban agriculture is the growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities (FAO).

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